Diabetes

The term Diabetes includes a number of disorders in the metabolism and metabolism of carbohydrates.

Normal metabolism

Carbohydrates that the body gets from eating bread, potatoes , rice, cakes and many other foods, are gradually broken down and decomposed.

This process of disintegration and decomposition begins in the stomach and then continues in the duodenum (Duodenum) and in the small intestine.

This process of disintegration and decomposition produces a group of sugars (carbohydrates) that are absorbed into the circulation.

Internal secretion cells in the pancreas, which are called beta cells, are very sensitive to high blood sugar levels and secrete the hormone insulin .

Insulin is an essential bridge for the entry of sugar molecules, glucose, into muscles where it is used as an energy source, and into fat and liver tissues where it is stored.

Glucose reaches the brain, too, but without the help of insulin.

In the pancreas, another type of cell is alpha cells, which secrete another extra hormone called Glucagon. This hormone causes sugar to be excreted from the liver and activates the action of other hormones that block the action of insulin.

The balance between these two hormones (insulin and glucagon) keeps the level of glucose in the blood stable and avoids severe changes.

People of a healthy weight and a lot of physical activity need a small amount of insulin to balance the action of glucose entering the blood. The more obese and less physically fit a person is, the more insulin is needed to process an equivalent amount of glucose in the blood. This condition is called ” insulin resistance.”

Having diabetes

When the beta cells in the pancreas are damaged, the amount of insulin produced gradually decreases, and this process continues for many years.

If this condition is accompanied by the presence of “insulin resistance”, then this combination of a low amount of insulin and a low level of activity leads to a deviation from the normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, in which case the person is defined as having diabetes (Diabetes).

It is known that the normal level of blood sugar after fasting eight hours should be less than 108 mg / dL, while the borderline level is 126 mg / dL.

Types of diabetes

The types of diabetes are:

1- Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (diabetes in children / juvenile diabetes) is a disease in which the immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, for reasons unknown and not identified, until now.

In boys, this process of destruction takes place quickly and lasts from a few weeks to a few years, but in adults, it may last for many years.

Type 1 diabetes may affect a person at any stage of life, but it often appears in childhood or adolescence.

Many people who develop Diabetes Type 1 at an advanced age are mistakenly diagnosed with Diabetes Type 2.

2- Type 2 diabetes

 Type 2 Diabetes (or: Type 2 Diabetes / Adult Diabetes) is a disease in which beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed and destroyed for genetic reasons, most likely supported by external factors. This process is very slow and lasts for decades.

The likelihood that someone of a healthy weight and good physical shape will develop diabetes is small, even if he has decreased insulin production.

The risk of diabetes for an obese person who is not physically active is a great possibility, given that he is more likely to develop “insulin resistance” and thus diabetes.

It is the most common, it can appear at any age, as the statistics indicate that the number of people with type 2 diabetes in the world has recorded a very large increase in recent decades, as it reached about 150 million people, and it is expected to rise to 330 million people with disease Diabetes, through 2025. Fortunately, it can often be prevented and avoided. 

Diabetes symptoms

Diabetes symptoms differ according to the type of diabetes.

Sometimes, people with “prediabetes” or pregnancy diabetes may not have any symptoms at all.

Or they may feel some of the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, or all of the symptoms together.

Symptoms of diabetes:

  • Thirst
  • Urinating a lot , often
  • Very severe hunger
  • Low weight for unknown and unknown reasons
  • Tired
  • Blurred vision
  • Slowly heal (heal) wounds
  • Frequent infections (infections) in: the gums, skin, vagina or urinary bladder.

Causes and risk factors of diabetes

Causes and risk factors of diabetes

Among the main causes of this sharp increase in diabetes are:

  • Obesity
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Changes in types of foods: Common foods today include ready-to-eat foods that cause diabetes, being rich in fats and sugars that are easily absorbed into the blood, which leads to an increase in “insulin resistance.”

Learn about the causes and risk factors for developing diabetes, by type:

Type 1 diabetes factors

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys the cells responsible for secreting insulin in the pancreas, rather than attacking and destroying harmful germs and / or viruses, as it usually does in normal (healthy) cases.

As a result, the body remains with little or no insulin. In this case, sugar collects and builds up in the circulatory system, instead of being distributed to various cells in the body.

It is not known, until now, the true eye cause of type 1 diabetes, but it appears that family history probably plays an important role.

The risk of developing type 1 diabetes increases for people whose parents or siblings have diabetes. There are additional factors, too, that may cause diabetes, such as exposure to viral diseases.

Factors of type 2 diabetes

In people with ” prediabetes ” that may worsen into type 2 diabetes, cells resist the effect of insulin action, while the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance.

In these cases, sugar accumulates and accumulates in the blood circulation instead of being distributed to cells and reaching them in various parts of the body.

The direct cause of these conditions is still unknown, but it appears that excess fat – especially in the abdomen – and lack of physical activity are important factors in this occurring.

Researchers are still looking for a real and accurate answer to the following question: Why do the conditions of “prediabetes” and type 2 diabetes affect certain people, specifically, and not others.

However, there are several factors that appear to increase the risk of developing diabetes, including: 

  • Age: Age greater than or equal to 45
  • Weight: Excess weight defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 25.
  • Genetics: a close family member with diabetes.
  • Race: Certain ethnic groups known to have a high risk of developing diabetes.
  • Physical activity: lack of physical activity.
  • Hypertension / hypertension: defined by blood pressure values ​​higher than 90/140 mmHg.
  • Hypercholesterolemia: LDL is harmful
  • High level of triglycerides in the blood: It is one of the types of fats in the body. Higher values ​​than 250 mg / dL.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Vascular disease: a personal history of these diseases.
  • The birth of a high-weight baby: a personal history of women, including the birth of a baby with a weight greater than 4.1 kg (the baby’s weight immediately after birth).
  • Gestational diabetes: a personal history of gestational diabetes.
  • Hemoglobin Glucosylate : HBA1C values ​​are greater than or equal to 5.7%.
  • Impaired glucose tolerance : those with impaired glucose tolerance
  • Glucose Values: Those with an impaired fasting glucose score / problem with impaired fasting glucose

When these factors appear – hypertension , hyperglycaemia and blood lipids above the normal level – along with obesity (overweight), a relationship emerges between them, together, and insulin resistance.

Factors for gestational diabetes

During pregnancy , the placenta produces hormones that aid and support pregnancy, and these hormones make cells more resistant to insulin.

In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, the placenta enlarges and produces large amounts of these hormones, which make insulin difficult to work.

Under normal conditions, the pancreas produces a response by producing extra insulin to overcome this resistance.

But the pancreas sometimes fails to keep up with the pace, which leads to the arrival of a very small amount of sugar (glucose) to the cells, while it collects and accumulates a large amount of it in the blood circulation. Thus, gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) is formed .

Any pregnant woman may develop gestational diabetes, but some women are at greater risk than others.

The risk factors for developing diabetes include:

  • Women over the age of 25 years
  • Family or personal history
  • Overweight

Diabetes complications

Diabetes may lead to:

  • Gradual rise in blood pressure
  • Characteristic disorders of blood lipids, especially elevated triglycerides
  • Decreased high-density lipoprotein (good cholesterol – HDL).
  • In general, diabetics suffer distinct damage: to the kidneys, the retina of the eyes, and the nervous system.

But complications arising from diabetes vary depending on the type of diabetes.

Complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Short-term complications from type 1 and type 2 diabetes require immediate treatment. Such cases, which are not treated immediately, may lead to convulsions and coma .

  • Hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia)
  • An elevated level of ketones in the urine ( diabetic ketoacidosis)
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

The long-term complications of diabetes appear gradually.

The risk of complications increases as diabetes develops at a younger age and in people who are not careful to control blood sugar levels. Ultimately, diabetes complications may lead to disability or even death.

  • Cardiovascular disease (in the heart and blood vessels)
  • Nerve damage ( neuropathy )
  • Damage to the kidneys (nephropathy)
  • Damage to the eyes
  • Damage to the shoulders of the feet
  • Diseases of the skin and in the mouth
  • Problems with bones and joints.

Complications of gestational diabetes

The majority of women who develop gestational diabetes give birth to healthy babies. However, if diabetes in the blood of a pregnant woman is unbalanced and not monitored and treated properly, it may cause harm to both the mother and the newborn.

Complications that may occur in the newborn due to gestational diabetes:

  • Overgrowth
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Respiratory distress syndrome
  • Jaundice
  • Type 2 diabetes in an advanced age
  • the death

Complications that may occur in the mother due to gestational diabetes:

  • Alartaj arrangements (pre – eclampsia)
  • Gestational diabetes in the next pregnancy as well